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The assumption that the geologic column is a base from which to calibrate the C dates is not wise. With a half-life of only years, carbon dating has nothing to do with dating the geological ages! Whether by sloppiness or gross ignorance, Dr. Hovind is confusing the carbon “clock” with other radiometric “clocks. Being ancient, the C content has long since decayed away and that makes it useful in “zeroing” laboratory instruments. It’s just one of the tricks that have been used to make the work a little more precise.
J. Laurence Kulp: Wikis
The cells are magnified x10, If you grew x10, , you could place your feet in Seattle and touch Perth, Australia with your hands. Iron in hemoglobin carries oxygen around our bodies. Scrap iron and steel for recycling. How times have changed; iron was once worth eight times more than gold. Discovery of Iron Iron has been known since ancient times.
Articles home page Creation vs. Evolution 0. Introduction and table of contents The following is an organized presentation on the creation vs. evolution controversy.
Bulk properties[ edit ] Thorium is a moderately soft , paramagnetic , bright silvery radioactive actinide metal. In the periodic table , it lies to the right of actinium , to the left of protactinium , and below cerium. Pure thorium is very ductile and, as normal for metals, can be cold-rolled , swaged , and drawn. Aluminium ‘s is In the beginning of period 7 , from francium to thorium, the melting points of the elements increase as in other periods , because the number of delocalised electrons each atom contributes increases from one in francium to four in thorium, leading to greater attraction between these electrons and the metal ions as their charge increases from one to four.
After thorium, there is a new downward trend in melting points from thorium to plutonium , where the number of f electrons increases from about 0. The major impurity is usually thorium dioxide ThO2 ; even the purest thorium specimens usually contain about a tenth of a percent of the dioxide.
Half life question (again).. help please!?
Radiometric dating is a means of determining the “age” of a mineral specimen by determining the relative amounts present of certain radioactive elements. By “age” we mean the elapsed time from when the mineral specimen was formed. Radioactive elements “decay” that is, change into other elements by “half lives.
Dr. Hovind (G1): The assumption that the geologic column is a base from which to calibrate the C dates is not wise. a half-life of only years, carbon dating has nothing to do with dating the geological ages! Whether by sloppiness or gross ignorance, Dr. Hovind is confusing the carbon “clock” with other radiometric “clocks.”.
For example, why are some radioisotopes, such as uranium , found in nature, whereas others are not and must by synthesized? The key to answering this question is to realize that different nuclei undergo radioactive decay at different rates. Many radioisotopes decay essentially completely in a matter of seconds or less; obviously, we do not find such nuclei in nature.
In contrast, uranium decays very slowly; therefore, despite its instability, we can still observe this isotope in nature. An important characteristic of a radioisotope is its rate of radioactive decay. Radioactive decay is a first-order kinetic process. Recall that a first-order process has a characteristic half-life, which is the time required for half of any given quantity of a substance to react.
The rates of decay of nuclei are commonly discussed in terms of their half-lives. Each isotope has its own characteristic half-life. For example, the half-life of strontium is If we started with Strontium decays to yttrium , as shown in Equation Half-lives as short as millionths of a second and as long as billions of years are known.
Facts About Strontium
Updated 10 November c Introduction In a related article on geologic ages Ages , we presented a chart with the various geologic eras and their ages. In a separate article Radiometric dating , we sketched in some technical detail how these dates are calculated using radiometric dating techniques. As we pointed out in these two articles, radiometric dates are based on known rates of radioactivity, a phenomenon that is rooted in fundamental laws of physics and follows simple mathematical formulas.
Dating schemes based on rates of radioactivity have been refined and scrutinized for several decades.
Withdrawn Standards A4- Withdrawn Specification for Medium-Carbon-Steel Splice Bars A5- Withdrawn Specification for High-Carbon Steel Joint Bars.
Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago. It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present.
If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking. One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position.
Today there are an increasing number of anti-creationist authors who are producing books and periodicals that make this relatively brief presentation insufficient to deal with all the points in dispute. Those defending creation today who don’t have the time to devote their life’s study to gaining expertise in all fields of inquiry must principally be prepared to think critically, logically, and challenge unsubstantiated assumptions made by these people.
They must also keep a level head in the face of some vicious attacks and diatribes that will be directed against them, as is advised in the scriptures 1 Peter 3: By way of definitions, I want to point out that when I speak of “evolution,” I am referring to the popular contemporary use of the word, which in a nutshell is the belief that all life forms are related by ancestry, and that the first life form occurred spontaneously, all due to completely natural processes.
Nuclear Half-Life Calculations
Oxidized dendritic strontium Strontium is a grey, silvery metal that is softer than calcium and even more reactive in water , with which it reacts on contact to produce strontium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. It is kept under a liquid hydrocarbon such as mineral oil or kerosene to prevent oxidation ; freshly exposed strontium metal rapidly turns a yellowish color with the formation of the oxide.
Finely powdered strontium metal is pyrophoric meaning it will ignite spontaneously in air at room temperature. Volatile strontium salts impart a bright red color to flames , and these salts are used in pyrotechnics and in the production of flares.
Apr 09, · Strontium 90 is a radioactive material that decays according to the function A(t) = Aoe^()(t), where Ao is the initial amount present and A is the amount present at time t (in years).Status: Resolved.
Cesium – 30 yrs. Knowledge of the half-life of an isotope is useful in almost all calculations involving tracer isotopes. It also leads to an interesting use for naturally occurring isotopes: In the upper atmosphere, radioactive CO2 C is formed as a result of bombardment of the upper atmosphere by cosmic rays. Through mixing by winds, the distribution of this form of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere remains virtually uniform. Since carbon dioxide is constantly being removed from the air by plants and created by cosmic rays, we can assume that the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air has been approximately the same for several hundred million years.
All plants have a constant concentration of C in their composition, because they use the radioactive C in photosynthesis. When the plant is alive, C is continually disintegrating, but it is continually being replaced by photosynthesis. However, when the plant dies, no more CO2 containing C is replaced by photosynthesis. Now, only disintegration is occurring and the C concentration in the plant begins to decrease.
By measuring the C level in the plant, it is possible to tell how long the plant has been dead. If an archaeologist unearths logs in an excavation of an ancient city, radiocarbon dating of the timbers will indicate approximately when the trees were cut down. By employing various isotopes in a somewhat similar fashion, geologists have been able to date the formation of many ancient rocks and even to roughly date the formation of the earth.
Battery and Energy Technologies
Natural[ edit ] On Earth, naturally occurring radionuclides fall into three categories: Radionuclides are produced in stellar nucleosynthesis and supernova explosions along with stable nuclides. Most decay quickly but can still be observed astronomically and can play a part in understanding astronomic processes. Some radionuclides have half-lives so long many times the age of the universe that decay has only recently been detected, and for most practical purposes they can be considered stable, most notably bismuth It is possible decay may be observed in other nuclides adding to this list of primordial radionuclides.
cesium and strontium are both produced in nuclear fallout. cesium has a half-life of 30 years. strontium has a half-life of 28 years. strontium is .
History of Technology Heroes and Villains – A little light reading Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many personalities, eccentrics and charlatans involved.
You may find the Search Engine , the Technology Timeline or the Hall of Fame quicker if you are looking for something or somebody in particular. Scroll down and see what treasures you can discover. Background We think of a battery today as a source of portable power, but it is no exaggeration to say that the battery is one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind. Volta’s pile was at first a technical curiosity but this new electrochemical phenomenon very quickly opened the door to new branches of both physics and chemistry and a myriad of discoveries, inventions and applications.
“Polonium Haloes” Refuted
This age is obtained from radiometric dating and is assumed by evolutionists to provide a sufficiently long time-frame for Darwinian evolution. And OE Christians theistic evolutionists see no problem with this dating whilst still accepting biblical creation, see Radiometric Dating – A Christian Perspective. This is the crucial point: Some claim Genesis in particular, and the Bible in general looks mythical from this standpoint.
A full discussion of the topic must therefore include the current scientific challenge to the OE concept. This challenge is mainly headed by Creationism which teaches a young-earth YE theory.
The ancient Hittites of Asia Minor, today’s Turkey, were the first to smelt iron from its ores around BC and this new, stronger, metal gave them economic and political power.
At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way.
At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column. Although there were attempts to make relative age estimates, no direct dating method was available until the twentieth century. However, before this time some very popular indirect methods were available. For example, Lord Kelvin had estimated the ages of both the Earth and the Sun based on cooling rates.
The answer of 25 million years deduced by Kelvin was not received favorably by geologists. Both the physical geologists and paleontologists could point to evidence that much more time was needed to produce what they saw in the stratigraphic and fossil records. As one answer to his critics, Kelvin produced a completely independent estimate — this time for the age of the Sun. His result was in close agreement with his estimate of the age of the earth.
Louis, March 15, Sun streamed in through a stained glass window of the chapel at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri on a pleasant and sunny Wednesday afternoon in mid-May About 1, people listened to Linus Pauling, the Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, deliver a fiery speech urging an end to nuclear weapons testing.
1) It is now possible to predict the strontium concentration in the world population for specified modes of atmospheric contamination with moderate reliability.
This new method has been used to perform a detailed Radiation levels in food predicted June 14, Food in Japan will be contaminated by low-level radioactivity for decades following the Fukushima nuclear disaster, but not at a level which poses a serious risk to human health, according to new research. Radioactive leaks top priority at Fukushima: Oats to clean up heavy metals in contaminated soil February 6, Researchers from universities in China, Switzerland and Australia have identified that the naked oat is best suited to remove radioactive strontium from contaminated soils.
Paper spotlights key flaw in widely used radioisotope dating technique January 31, An oversight in a radioisotope dating technique used to date everything from meteorites to geologic samples means that scientists have likely overestimated the age of many samples, according to new research from North Carolina Recommended for you Scientists discover a new route to antibiotics using gene editing November 26, Scientists have discovered a new chemical process—also known as a biosynthetic pathway—in bacteria which could lead to a new generation of antibiotics being produced and manufactured.
Light-activated, single-ion catalyst breaks down carbon dioxide November 26, A team of scientists has discovered a single-site, visible-light-activated catalyst that converts carbon dioxide CO2 into “building block” molecules that could be used for creating useful chemicals. Chemical carousel rotates in the cold November 26, Molecular motors, which rotate unidirectionally in response to an external energy input, constitute an important class of components for future applications in the field of nanotechnology.
Molecules whose structure and spatial Researchers apply 2-D spectroscopy to isolated molecular systems for the first time November 26, A research team headed by Prof. Frank Stienkemeier and Dr. Lukas Bruder of the University of Freiburg’s Institute of Physics has applied 2-D spectroscopy to isolated molecular systems for the first time, and thus in tracing